Tianquan County is located at the western margin of Sichuan Basin, the eastern foothills of Erlang Mountain, the southern section of Qionglai Mountains, and the eastern end of the Kangba Culture area. It is about 60km long from east to west and 50km wide from north to south, with an area of 2,400km2, covering 15 townships/towns with a total population of over 150,000. Tianquan enjoys a subtropical monsoon climate, warm and rainy, with annual precipitation of 1,576.1mm, an average temperature of 15.3°C, average annual sunshine of 928.6h, and a frost-free period of 241d. Its air quality reaches the national first-grade standard and its water quality reaches the national second-grade standard.
Tianquan County has been titled as "National Ecological Construction Demonstration County", "National Demonstration County of Returning Farmland to Forest and Grassland", "First Batch of National Natural Grassland Restoration and Construction Demonstration County", and "Demonstration County of County Economy Development". With a long history, Tianquan known as "Key of Southwestern China & Throat of Nanzhao". It is an important natural ecological barrier in the middle and upper reaches of the Yangtze River, reputed as the Southwest Ethnic Corridor and Ecological Corridor of Sichuan.
In ancient times, Tianquan was governed by Siyu State (also known as Si Capital). As early as the Neolithic Age, it was a place of human settlement and the ancient Di and Qiang people - Si people lived, worked and thrived here. According to the Records of the Grand Historian ? Biography of Sima Xiangru records, Sima Xiangru was ordered and stabilized southwestern China in the sixth year of Yuanding Period of the Western Han Dynasty (111 BC), the king of Siyu State submitted himself to the rule of the court, and former Si Capital (current Shiyang Town) was set as Sixian County, which was the start of county setting in Tianquan. The Han system was inherited by the Western Jin Dynasty, Sixian County was renamed Siyang County with the same land governed. In the Southern Qi Dynasty, Siyang County was renamed Zongyang County. In the second year of the reign of Emperor Fei of Western Wei Dynasty (AD 553), and Zongyang County was renamed Shiyang County, with the meaning of "Yang starts from here".
In the first year of Wude Period of Tang Dynasty (AD 618), the Tang Dynasty adjusted the administrative division of Shu (Sichuan) and set up Yangqi County (current Tianquan County). In the first year of Tianbao Period of Tang Dynasty (AD 734), four military towns, namely Shiyang, Lingguan, Anguo and Hechuan, were set in former Shiyang County. After the mid Tang Dynasty, it was ruled by headmen (Headman Gao and Headman Yang). In the Late Shu, six military-civilian pacification commissions, namely Diaomen, Li, Ya, Changhexi, Yutong and Ningyuan were set. Headman Gao built his official office at Shiyang and Headman Yang built his official office at Diaomen (current Chengxiang Town). The system of Late Shu was inherited by the Song Dynasty. In the second year of Zhiyuan Period of Yuan Dynasty (1265), Diaomen, Li and Ya pacification commissions were set, and they were changed to Liufan Bandit Suppression Commission with the seat in Diaomen, and Tianquan Bandit Suppression Commission was set with the seat in Shiyang. In the sixth year of Emperor Hongwu of Ming Dynasty (1373), Tianquan Bandit Suppression Commission was changed to Tianquan Liufan Bandit Suppression Commission with the seat in Shiyang, directly under Sichuan Provincial Administration Commission. In the twenty-first year of Emperor Hongwu (1388), it was changed to the governance of Sichuan Regional Military Commission, and Liufan Bandit Suppression Commission was changed to Tianquan Liufan Bandit Suppression Sub-Commission with its seat at current Chengxiang Town.
In the seventh year in the reign of Emperor Yongzheng in the Qing Dynasty (1729), the headman system was changed to the mobile official system, Tianquan Sub-Prefecture was set with the seat at current Chengxiang Town, under the governance of Yazhou Prefecture, and a branch of Tianquan Sub-Prefecture was set in current Shiyang and was cancelled in the reign of Emperor Daoguang.
In the second year of the Republic of China (1913), prefectures, sub-prefectures and departments were cancelled and Tianquan Sub-Prefecture was changed to Tianquan County with the seat at current Chengxiang Town, under the governance of Jianchang Administrative District.
In 1935, the Red Army went north to resist against Japanese aggression and established four levels of Soviet political regime, namely county, area, township and village. In 1939, Xikang Province was established with Tianquan County under its governance. On February 8, 1950, Tianquan County People's Government was established, under the governance of Ya’an Prefecture, Xikang Province. In 1955, Xikang Province was merged into Sichuan Province and Tianquan County was under the governance of Ya'an Prefecture, Sichuan Province. In 1968, the prefecture system was changed, and Tianquan County was still under the governance of Ya'an Prefecture. On December 10, 2000, Ya'an Prefecture was changed to Ya'an Municipality and Tianquan is under the governance of Ya'an Municipality, Sichuan Province since then. The seat of Tianquan County People's Government is Chengxiang Town.
The place name of Tianquan was used since the Yuan Dynasty and its origin is recorded in the Annals of Tianquan Prefecture: “With Tianquan Mountain, Tianquan was rich in rain originally, located between ancient large and small sky leakages. The former name of the entrance of Feixian Pass was "Leakage Tower", called "sky leakage" in ancient times, commonly known as "sky hole", and easy leakage means Quan, so the place is named Tianquan.
Geographical location: 102°16′-102°55′ E, 29°49′-30°21′ N.
Administrative division: Jurisdiction over 7 towns and 3 townships, with 138 villages, 956 villagers' groups and 6 communities.
Tianquan County governs 7 towns and 3 townships, namely Chengxiang Town, Shiyang Town, Xiaohe Town, Sijing Town, Labahe Town, Renyi Town, Xinchang Town, Xinhua Township, Xingye Township, and Leying Township, with 138 villages, 6 communities, and 956 villagers' groups.
Topography and landform: Administrative area of 2,392.16km2, highest altitude of 5,150m and lowest altitude of 600m, including 1.5% of hills and 98.5% of mountains. Annual average temperature at 15.3°C, average temperature in January at 5°C, average temperature in August at 23.7°C, and annual average rainfall of 1,576.1mm.
Land: Total land area of 239,029.05ha, including farming land of 12,284.74ha, forest land of 197,107.33ha, garden of 962.14ha, grassland of 3,492.04ha, waters and land of water conservancy facilities of 3,248.78ha, urban and industrial and mining land of 2,665.5ha, transportation land of 808ha, and other lands of 18,460.52ha.
In the first half of 2020, the economic development of Tianquan County showed a trend of recovery, acceleration, stabilization and improvement, and its comprehensive economic development ranked first in Ya'an Municipality. Tianquan's added value of industrial enterprises above designated size increased by 6.1%, 2.7 percentage points higher than that of Ya'an Municipality, and 3.6 percentage points higher than that of Sichuan Province.
Tianquan's regional GDP increased by 2.6%, the added value of industrial enterprises above designated size increased by 6.1%, the added value of the service industry increased by 1.1%, the total retail sales of consumer goods fell by 7.2%, and the fixed asset investment was RMB 3.58 billion, an increase of 7.4%. The local government general public budgeted revenue was RMB 120 million, an increase of 0.2%, and RMB 3.52 billion was invested in place, both ranking the forefront of Ya'an Municipality.
730 new market entities are registered here, an increase of 12.65%. 137 new VAT invoice accounts were opened, an increase of 24%. The bank loan-to-deposit ratio was 73.81%, returning to the level of the same period last year. The industrial enterprises above designated size paid taxes of RMB 150 million, an increase of 19.7%. Since July, the maximum daily power supply has exceeded 6 million kWh, a YoY increase of 57.9%.
Tianquan's tax revenue accounted for 79.8% in the total local government general public budgeted revenue, and the investment to industrial projects accounted for more than 50% in the fixed asset investment. The county’s employment was increased by 4,609 persons, an increase of 5%, and the ambient air quality compliance rate was 95.9%.